Método Respuesta Total Física - Total Physical Response

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Nature of language:
TPR reflects a grammar-based view of language. 

Most of the gramatical  structure of the target language and hundreds of vocabulary ítems can be learned from the skillfull use of the imperative by the instructor. (Comprehension Approach).
The verb is viewed, and paricularly the verb in the imperative, as the central linguistic motif around which language use and learning are organized.

A theory of the nature of language learning
Asher sees  a stimulus – response view as providing the learning theory underlying language teaching pedagogy. TPR can also be linked to the “trace theory” of memory of psychology; which holds that the more often or the more intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory association will be and the more likely it will be recalled.

There are three principles
There exists a specific innate BIO-PROGRAM for language learning, which defines an optimal path for first and second language development. (Understanding the spoken language should develop before speaking the language).

BRAIN LATERALIZATION:  defines different learning functions in the left and right-brain hemispheres (Understanding should evolve through the movement of the student’s body). 

REDUCTION OF STRESS  (an affective filter) intervenes between the act of learning and what is to be learned. The lower of the stress. (Students should not be forced to speak. The student will produce sounds spontaneously).

The bio- program: 

Asher sees three processes as central:
1. Listening competence - Speaking ability - Children understand complex utterances that they cannot spontaneously produce or imitate.

2. Parental command - Listening comprehension - Physical response.
3. Once listening comprehension has been established speech evolves naturally and effortlessly. 

The foreign languagues learner should internalize:
A ‘cognitive map’ of the target language. (listening exercices)
Listening should be accompanied by physical movement. 
Speech and other productive skills come later.

Brain lateralization
Asher sees TPR as directed to right-brain learning.

Right hemisphere activities must occur before the left hemisphere can process languge for production.

While adult proceed to language mastery through right hemisphere motor activities, the left hemisphere watches and learns.

Reduction of stress
The absence of stress is an important condition for successful language learning. 
First language acquisition  Stress free environment 
Adult language learning Stressful Causes anxiety 
Focus meaning through movement Not language forms



General objectives teach oral proficiency at a beginning level
Using of the comprehension as a means to speaking
Teach basic speaking skills
Produce learners who are capable of an uninhibited communication 
All goals must be attainable through the use of action-based drills in the imperative form.


Sentence-based syllabus ( analysis of the exercise types employed in TPR classes)
Grammatical and lexical criteria are primary 
Unlike others, TPR requires initial attention to meaning rather than to the form of items.
Grammar is taught inductively.

The types of learning and teaching activities

Imperative drills are the major classroom activity in TPR. 
Conversational dialogues are delayed until after almost 120 hours of instruction.
Other class activities include role plays and slide presentations.

Learner roles

Learners have the primary roles of listener and performer.
Learners are expected to recognize and respond to novel combinations of previously taught items
Learners are required to produce novel combinations. 
Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress.
They are encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak

Teacher roles

Teachers play an active and direct role.
They decide what to teach, who models, present new materials and select supporting materials.
Teachers should allow speaking abilities to develop in learners at the learners’ own natural pace.
Teachers must be like parents while giving feedback.

The role of teaching materials 

Generally no basic text 
Teacher’s voice, actions, and gestures
Common classroom objects(books, pens, cups, furniture) 
Supporting materials(pictures, realia, slides, and word charts)
Materials and realia play an increasing role later on. 
Asher developed TPR student kits that focus on specific situations, such as the home, the supermarket, the beach.

II  . GRAMMAR         : Imperative + Object, Verb + object.
IV • TRAINEES         : Karina Chumacero Jibaja 
V  •TRAINER         : Lic. Mg. Yolanda Castañeda Almerí

Using commands to direct behavior
1. The teacher introduces the following  vocabulary and names them: sponge, dustcloth, vacuum cleaner, broom, brush.

2. The teacher asks for a volunteer to come to the front. She gives the command, “Point to the _______.” She and the volunteer point to each word of the vocabulary in turn. Then she gives the commands at an increasingly rapid pace, while the student points to the words of the vocabulary.

3. The teacher gives individual commands and the whole class points to the words of the vocabulary. She links two, and then three, commands together and the students point
Everybody point to the:
Vacuum cleaner

4. The teacher demonstrates the cleaning actions.
I  sweeping the floor
I vacuuming  the rug
I scrubbing the sink
I  wiping the counter
I  dusting the bookshelves

5. The teacher asks for a volunteer to come to the front. She names the actions and does them. Then she commands the student to do the actions.
Sweep the kitchen floor
Wipe  of the counter 
Scrub the kitchen sink
Vacuum  the rug
Dust the bookshelves

6. The teacher gives the commands to the whole group. The first time she does the commands together with the students, then she has them do the commands without her.
7. The teacher strings two commands together with the word then.
o Sweep the floor then vacuum the rug.
o Dust the bookshelves and wipe the counter.

Role Reversal
1. The teacher commands individual students to tell other individuals to do one of the cleaning actions.
2. The teacher demonstrates the meaning of quickly and carefully.
Vacuum  the rug
Dust the bookshelves
3. The teacher commands the students to do one action first quickly, then carefully.
Scrub the  sink quickly
Scrub the sink carefully
Wipe the counter quickly 
Wipe the counter carefully

Action sequence 
1. The teacher gives two and three commands at a time. The students respond to the commands.
Scrub the  sink quickly and vacuum the rug carefully
Dust the bookshelves carefully and vacuum the rug quickly.
Vacuum the rug carefully, dust the bookshelves quickly,and then, wipe the counter carefully

2. The teacher works with small groups, giving them two and three command sequences.
Scrub the  sink quickly
Wipe the counter carefully 

3. The teacher introduces while + present progressive. She commands one student to do a cleaning action. She commands another student to do a different cleaning action while the first student is still doing his/her action.
Anita wipe the counter carefully, While Anita is wiping the counter,Susany sweep the floor carefully, and scrub the sink quickly

4. The teacher writes the vocabulary on the board.
Nouns: sponge, broom, vacuum cleaner, brush, dustcloth, sink, kitchen, floor, rug, counter, bookshelves, living room
Verbs: wipe, sweep, vacuum, scrub, dust
Adverbs: carefully, quickly

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